The Oscillators (OSC1-3) are the main sound sources of the instrument. They are identical, except to their pre-patched frequency modulation sources and the fact that OSC1 can be switched to LFO mode.

Oscillators are equipped with seven waveforms, sync and different frequency and pulse width modulation

routes. Given that, the oscillators offer a great flexibility in wave shaping process.

The oscillator's frequency is controlled by RANGE, TUNE, MASTER CONTROLLER and FM LEVEL.

RANGE determines the octave range of the oscillators within six octaves respective to the coarse tuning of

OSC1 in LFO-mode.

TUNE finetunes the oscillators (± 6 semitones).

FM LEVEL determinates the intensity of frequency modulation. Frequency modulation for oscillators has

different modulation sources (see table on the page 10) for a maximal modulation flexibility. Frequency

modulation, by an audio signal, creates so called "side-bands" that consist of sum and difference of signals frequencies. These additional frequencies do mostly have a non harmonic sound. Modulation, by low periodic waveforms, such as LFO or envelope generator creates momentary pitch shift of modulated oscillator common named vibrato (by LFO) or pitch bend (by envelope generator).

More interesting things happen as soon as both frequencies are in the audio-range. The fast modulation

of the frequency creates so called "side-bands" that consist of sum and difference of signals frequencies.

These additional frequencies do mostly have a non harmonic sound or (with extreme modulation) noise.

Experiment first with sine waves at different frequency ranges, and then go for more complex waveforms.

SYNC means that sync'ed oscillators frequency is tracked by the frequency of controlling oscillator;

OSC3's frequency is syncronized to OSC2's frequency, OSC2's frequency is syncronized to OSC1's

frequency. When the tuned frequency of sync-ed oscillator has the same or multiple of frequency of controlling oscillator then sync-ed oscillators waveform has no or very little "glitch" which results in a sync-ed smooth waveform (i.e. sinus waveform). The sync-ed waveforms (with additional FM modulation) are perfect for cutting edge lead sound and hard, funky basses.

You want to know how to trigger oscillators at zero-crossing to get most natural and static drum sounds?

Simply tune the synced oscillator to a multiple number of cycles (i.e. OSC1 = 110Hz and sync-ed

OSC2 = 880Hz). Listen to the synced oscillator only with a sine wave only and tune it, until the tone sounds

most pure.

PULSE WIDTH (%) adjust the pulse width of the pulse waveform from 5% to 95%. 

WAVEFORM selects the waveform or a mix of waveforms from an oscillator. PULSE WIDTH control works

also on the waveform mixes where the pulse wave is included. The different waveforms contain different harmonic structures respective to their overtone content. Thus they sound different from each other and can be used as raw material for creating different types of sounds.

This is a brief description of waveforms:

*Sine contains low order harmonics with low amplitude and sounds "dull" or "pure". It's useful for creating of

  whistles, flutes and other pure sounds. 

*Triangle contains more high order harmonics than the sine wave and sounds with more "edge". It's great for flute- and vibraphone like sounds.

*Saw tooth is overtone rich and sounds "cutting". It's especially useful for strings, lead sounds and basses.

*Pulse is the most overtone rich and the character of the sound depends on the pulse width. A symetric pulse contains almost odd harmonics and is hollow sounding. The more it differs from the symetric waveform, the more it sounds"edgy" and "nasal". It's very useful for wood like, pads, bass and string like sounds.

The mixes of basic waveforms are:

*Triangle + Saw Tooth

*Triangle + Pulse

*Saw Tooth + Pulse